79 million adults with medical bill problems or medical debt in U dipropionate .S. The proportion of working-age Americans who’ve medical bill problems or who are paying off medical debt climbed from 34 % to 41 % between 2005 and 2007, bringing the full total to 72 million, according to recent survey findings from The Commonwealth Fund. In addition, 7 million adults age 65 and over also had problems paying medical bills, for a total of 79 million adults with medical bill problems or medical debt. In a new Commonwealth Fund statement about the survey findings, Losing Ground: The way the Reduction of Adequate Health Insurance is Burdening Working Families, the authors describe how working-age adults have become more exposed to the increasing costs of healthcare, either because they have dropped insurance through their careers or because they are paying more out of pocket for their health care.
Acute exacerbations of COPD are defined as an increase in dyspnea, cough, or sputum production warranting a noticeable modification in therapy. These acute exacerbations frequently derive from the acquisition of brand-new strains of bacteria, viral infection, or contact with pollution.3,4 In addition to these triggers, it is clear that patients with COPD may have a rise in respiratory symptoms owing to overt or subclinical cardiovascular events including ischemia,5 heart failure,6 and thromboembolism,7 the latter of which causes up to 25 percent of severe exacerbations.7 Our ability to identify individuals at risk for exacerbations was improved by the findings in the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints study,8 which demonstrated the predictive usefulness of clinical characteristics such as prior exacerbations.