Taking sequencing outcomes into account, the MTB/RIF test detected rifampin resistance in 209 of 211 patients and in all 506 patients with rifampin susceptibility . The rpoB mutations found in this study were representative of the global situation: 16 different mutations were identified, but a limited number, notably in codons 516, 526 and 531, accounted for almost all resistant strains. Using the Southern African samples, all of us compared the performance of the direct Genotype MTBDRplus assay with that of the MTB/RIF test.Assessment of Symptoms We assessed symptoms by using a organized interview of one of the child’s parents; assessments were performed by telephone every day before first follow-up visit and personally at each visit. We also asked the parents about lack of time at work or the necessity for alternative day-care arrangements due to the child’s disease. Parents had been asked to record their child’s AOM-SOS scores and additional pertinent clinical info in a diary twice a time for 3 days and once a day thereafter. Otoscopic Examination, Overall Assessment, and Management All the research clinicians were otoscopists who had successfully completed an otoscopic validation program, 13 and their findings on otoscopic evaluation determined the diagnoses for the scholarly study; whenever possible, however, we also obtained otoendoscopic photographs of the children’s tympanic membranes .